A randomized pilot study, published in Phytotherapy Research (Volume 26, Issue 11, pages 1719–1725, November 2012) looked at 45 subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups and received either 50 mg. diclofenac sodium (a Cox-2 type NSAID), 500 mg. curcumin, or a combination of the two. Based on Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for score in reduction in joint tenderness and swelling, all three groups experienced improvement. The subjects taking the curcumin actually had greater improvement than the group taking the NSAID (NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug).